Technology Overview of Electric Bikes in India
In this article we will discuss the technical details of various e-bike electrical components which are currently used in the various electric bike model in India. This article will help a potential e-bike costumer to know current state of art technology in Electric bikes in India.
Various Electrical components & the specifications of E-bikes in India are as follows
a. The type of motor used in e-bike applications is Brushless DC motor.
b. Two different types of motors are being used – HUB motor & Geared Motor.
c. Hub & geared motors with 100W, 150W, 180W and 250W are used for Electric Cycle applications. ( ARAI exemption needed for this so that it comes under No-Licence & No-registration , No- Road tax criteria )
d. Hub & Geared motors with 250W, 350W, 500W, 800W are used for Electric Scooters applications. (CMVR approval needed for these bikes to be on road. Licence , road tax , registration are required )
e. More the motor power more will be the pick-up and better climbing capability on sloppy roads.
f. For a given battery power, if we use powerful motor, the driving range reduces.
a. Controller is necessary for driving a BLDC Motor.
b. Current limit is very important feature in a controller. It limits the maximum current drawn from battery and flow through the motor windings. This feature protects the motor to get overloaded.
c. Other than the above features, many controllers are giving features like – cruise control, low speed setting, Reserve feature, Reverse rotation, Anti-theft alarm, brake electrical motor cut-off, electromagnetic braking and many more.
d. In E-cycle applications, the current limit is around 10A to 13A.
e. In E-scooter applications, the current limit is around 15A to 20A
f. In High speed E-scooters the current limit is ranging around 21A -30A.
a. DC-DC Converter converts a high voltage DC power supply to low voltage.
b. DC to DC Converter is used to power the lamps, horn and side indicator buzzer.
c. Most common converters used are 48V/12V 10A and 60V/12V 10A.
a. Currently the Electric Scooters are using Sealed Lead Acid batteries. 24V12AH being used for E-cycles, 48V 20AH & 60V 20AH for E-scooters applications.
b. Sealed lead acid batteries also called as Valve regulated Lead acid batteries. This type of batteries are non-spill type and non-hazardous to the driver.
c. Li-ion batteries also being used in some E-cycles but being costlier they usage is limited.
d. For a given motor power, if we use high voltage battery, battery draws lesser current and hence the bikes drive range is increased.
e. In some electric bikes, battery pack is kept in a plastic box and can be detachable from the bike for charging purposes. But in some bikes, the battery pack will be under the seat cover and cannot be detachable.
a. Battery Charger uses power electronic technology.
b. Various Battery chargers used in India for e-bike applications are 48V 2.5A, 48V 3A, 48V 5A, 60V 2,5A.
c. Once the battery is fully charged, the charging current automatically reduces to minimum and hence the charger won’t get damaged in that condition.
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